That’s why I decided to choose ecology as my future specialty.

That’s why I decided to choose ecology as my future specialty.

That’s why I decided to choose ecology as my future specialty.

Rich ores (iron content 44 – 48%) have almost no harmful impurities and are developed by mining.

At the beginning of the basin’s operation, about 6 billion tons of ore were extracted from its subsoil. In the early 90’s there were 17 mines, 5 powerful mining and processing plants (GOK), which serve 10 quarries. Iron ores come to the surface and occur at depths of more than 2.5 km. High-quality ores (with 50-60% iron content) are mined, there is also opencast mining of poorer ores with an iron content of 35-40%. But, unfortunately, the deposits are located too concentrated, which significantly increases the negative impact of the iron industry on the environment.

Environmental problems caused by mining activities are complex. The complexity is explained by the fact that the spread of pollutants occurs in all major ways: air (during crushing, rock beneficiation, waste storage) and water (during drainage from mines, sewage sludge and process effluents during enrichment).

In addition, Kryvbas is the largest iron ore basin in Ukraine. Today in Kryvbas there are: 20 production mines, 3 drainage complexes, 6 mining and processing plants (GCC) with the largest quarries in Ukraine and numerous quarries for the extraction of building materials and other minerals.

Nine huge iron quarries and many smaller ones with a total area of ​​over 100 square meters. km, significantly reduce the protective properties of the environment. In their locations, along with the distortion of the natural terrain, there are negative slope phenomena – dumps, landslides, planar and linear erosions. Group explosions in quarries are one of the most intense sources of air pollution in the area with a radius of about 100 km and more. Agglomeration production of GFCs significantly increases the concentration in the atmosphere of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and dust, which contains oxides of iron, manganese, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, silica, titanium, vanadium, phosphorus and other elements.

Areas of collapse of minefields occupy about 100 km. sq; dumps of overburden and substandard iron ore from quarries and mines – more than 200 square meters. km. The latter occupy precious arable land, accumulate significant amounts of precipitation, which leads to flooding of adjacent areas, the development of landslides and other exogenous processes. Overburden dumps are subject to wind erosion, which causes dust storms and chemical contamination of soils and surface waters.

The problem of discharge, utilization and burial of highly mineralized mine waters, the annual pumping of which into storage ponds is more than 40 million cubic meters, is very relevant. m. The salt content in them varies in the range of 4.5 – 23 g / l, and the total area of ​​water – about 100 square meters. km. The result of this anthropogenic load on the environment is the flooding of a large area of ​​the industrial and urban agglomeration and adjacent areas, which is more than 500 square meters. km.

The main cause of surface and groundwater pollution is the imperfection of mineralized water storage, resulting in infiltration losses of the liquid phase, followed by contamination of rocks in the aeration zone, and then groundwater salts (SO4, NH4, NO2 and others). From the sources of pollution, toxic components migrate to groundwater both along the aquifer and vertically. The presence of two waterproof horizons (red-brown and Kyiv clays), in many places with a thickness of 3-10 meters, retains pollutants, but in places where these horizons are absent, halos of groundwater pollution are formed.

A necessary condition for the extraction of iron ore from great depths is the drainage of aquifers, because groundwater does not allow to lay mines at depths of more than 1300 m, threatening flooding. But intensive pumping of groundwater has led to the emergence of a powerful (more than 1000m) depressive funnel, which causes a number of negative man-made processes, such as soil compression, subsidence, and so on.

Analysis of the state of the natural environment of Kryvbas, the deterioration of which is due to the activities of the mining industry, allows us to conclude that the most powerful and intensive sources of environmental pollution are associated with the following migration flows:

dust emissions that occur during ore mining in the open, pollute the atmosphere and create powerful geochemical anomalies in soils; deflation and erosion of tailings of tailings and heaps of overburden, which create intense scattering flows in water systems and local halos in the soil; runoff of highly mineralized water from underground mine workings and quarries, whichpersuade intense and powerful scattering fluxes in water systems; wastewater from concentrators after treatment plants that pollute aquatic ecosystems; scattering of the ore component during transportation, which creates halos of soil contamination; organized and unorganized emissions into the atmosphere during the enrichment cycle; natural geochemical anomalies (halos of scattering in soils and surface waters), hydrochemical anomalies in groundwater; exogenous processes (landslides, subsidence, failures, flooding, etc.).

The consequences of these migration flows are pollution of 3 main writing lab reports online components of the environment: atmosphere, soil, surface and groundwater and the emergence of anthropogenic landforms.

Comparing the risk of air, drainage, water and soil pollution, it is necessary to take into account not only the absolute amount and relative concentration of pollutants in these environments, but also their assimilation by living organisms, pollutants entering the life support system (food , air, drinking water). All this is due to the peculiarities of the migration of chemical elements in man-made landscape-geochemical complexes and requires a comprehensive study.

When assessing the overall picture of environmental pollution it is necessary to take into account the following:

pollution (except for carbon dioxide) does not accumulate in the air, while in water systems and soils it can act for a long time; water can be purified before use, while air and soil are unrealistic; pollution by emissions and effluents is scattered, and pollution by solid waste is localized; soils are a perennial (tens to hundreds of years) depositor of pollution.

So, as a result of the analysis of the condition of the Kryvyi Rih iron ore basin, I came to the conclusion that it should be considered unsatisfactory and it needs radical improvement. Of course, today our country is in a difficult economic situation and our government is making every effort to overcome all economic difficulties and bring society to the level of stable development and prosperity.

So it is clear that, although officially the issue of overcoming environmental problems in Ukraine is considered one of the highest priorities, in fact, the environment is now given insufficient attention. But if we are going to live not only today, but also want to provide our children with a decent future, environmental issues must be given priority.

That’s why I decided to choose ecology as my future specialty. In my opinion, an ecologist is a noble and respected profession. As a physician caring for a sick human body, or a psychiatrist dictating a sick human soul, the ecologist, in turn, treats the sick body and the soul of nature.

There are many environmental problems in Ukraine, and each of them is not easy and requires a lot of effort to solve. And, as an ecologist, I will try to contribute to overcoming the environmental crisis in Ukraine.


Information bulletin on the state of the geological environment of Ukraine for 1991 – Kyiv, 1992. Lazarenko EK, Gershoig Yu. G., Buchinskaya NI, etc. Mineralogy of the Kryvyi Rih basin. Science. Dumka., Kiev, 1977, 544 p. Mikhailov AM Environmental protection in the development of open pit fields. – M., Nedra, 1981.


Solid industrial waste: sources of formation and environmental aspects of the problem. Abstract

Sources of solid industrial waste. Ecological aspects of the problem of solid industrial waste generation and ways to solve them at the present stage. Rational use of raw materials and recycling of solid industrial waste. Disposal and disposal of solid industrial waste

Solid waste and sources of their formation

Solid waste, depending on the place of their formation is divided into two categories:

industrial; household, or municipal waste.

Solid industrial waste

Wastes generated in the process of mining, their enrichment in production processes are called industrial.

Solid industrial waste includes:

wastes of metal, wood, plastics, rubber and other materials, sewage sludge after their treatment, dust sludge in wet gas purification systems, industrial waste.

Sources of solid industrial waste

The bulk of solid industrial waste is generated at enterprises:

mining industry (slag, dumps, etc.); ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy (slag, sludge, metal waste, furnace dust, etc.); metalworking industry (metal shavings, defective products, scrap, etc.); forestry and woodworking industry (logging waste, wood waste in the manufacture of furniture, parquet, doors, windows and other wooden products, waste adhesives, formaldehyde resins, paints, etc.); energy (slag, ash, earthworms, which are formed at thermal power plants); chemical and related industries (phosphogypsum, halite, cinder, sludge, slag, glass, cement dust, rubber, plastics, etc.); food industry (bones, wool, etc.); light industry (pieces of fabric, leather, rubber, plastics, etc.).

Solid industrial waste also includes:

sewage sludge; dust sludge in wet gas cleaning systems; industrial waste.

Ecological aspects of the problem of solid industrial waste generation and ways to solve it

Problems with the accumulation and disposal of solid industrial waste arise and need to be addressed in every civilized country.